A mediastinoscopy with biopsy is a minor surgical procedure that gathers samples of lymph nodes

Pectus excavatum (funnel chest) is a congenital defect that causes the chest wall to appear sunken. It often results in lack of confidence and shortness of breath.

Emphysema, also called pulmonary emphysema, condition characterized by widespread destruction of the gas-exchanging tissues of the lungs, resulting in abnormally large air spaces.

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